The famous statistician George Box said “All models are wrong, but some are useful”—for calculating air quality indices and emissions estimates this is certainly true. One way to increase the utility of models is to use up-to-the-minute, local Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) measurements as an input when generating top-down emissions estimates.
Micro pulse style lidars are active remote sensing tools proven to be highly useful in atmospheric research. This style of backscatter lidar has been around for decades; however, incremental improvements in photon counting, sensitivity, polarization, optical filters, coatings, and precision machining of each element support increasingly accurate analysis.
Volcano Alert Level: “Warning” and Aviation Color Code: “Red.” If a volcano reaches this status, there is a major eruption imminent or already underway, which poses a threat to the surrounding areas on the ground and in the air.